Posted by : Rhyf Ahmad Thursday, May 21, 2015

An object of a class is also referred to as an instance of that class. When you create an object, the object contains all the fields that were included in the class definition. However, the fields in a class definition are not all the same — there are two kinds. One kind of field is associated with the class and is shared by all objects of the class.
There is only one copy of each of these kinds of fields no matter how many class objects are created, and they exist even if no objects of the class have been created. This kind of variable is referred to as a class variable because the field belongs to the class and not to any particular object, although as I've said, all objects of the class share it. These fields are also referred to as static fields because you use the static keyword when you declare them.
The other kind of field in a class is associated with each object uniquely — each instance of the class has its own copy of each of these fields, each with its own value assigned. These fields differentiate one object from another, giving an object its individuality — the particular name, address, and telephone number in a given Person object, for example. These are referred to as non-static fields or instance variables because you specify them without using the static keyword, and each instance of a class type has its own independent set.

Contents:

What Is a Class?
  1. Fields in a Class Defi nition
  2. Methods in a Class Defi nition
  3. Accessing Variables and Methods
  4. Final Fields

Defining Classes
Defining Methods
  1. Returning from a Method
  2. The Parameter List
  3. Defi ning Class Methods
  4. Accessing Class Data Members in a Method
  5. The Variable this
  6. Initializing Data Members

Constructors
  1. The Default Constructor
  2. Creating Objects of a Class

Defining and Using a Class
Method Overloading
  1. Multiple Constructors
  2. Duplicating Objects Using a Constructor

Using Objects
  1. Creating a Point from Two Lines

Recursion
Understanding Packages
  1. Packaging Up Your Classes
  2. Adding Classes from a Package to Your Program
  3. Packages and Names in Your Programs
  4. Importing Static Class Members
  5. Standard Packages

Controlling Access to Class Members
  1. Using Access Attributes
  2. Specifying Access Attributes
  3. Choosing Access Attributes

Nested Classes
  1. Static Nested Classes
  2. Using a Non-Static Nested Class
  3. Using a Nested Class Outside the Top-Level Class
  4. Local Nested Classes 




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